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  Ethanol Fuel  

Ethanol fuel – One Planet One Universe Multiple Generations…

Six typical Brazilian dual-fuel models from several car makers, popularly called "flex" cars, that run on any blend of hydrous ethanol (E100) and gasoline.

Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol production and until 2010, the world's largest exporter. Brazil and North American lead the industrial revolution and production of ethanol fuel, accounting together for 87.8% of the world's production in 2010, and 87.1% In 2011 Brazil produced 21.1 billion liters and representing 24.9% of the world's total ethanol consumption as fuel.

Brazil is considered to be the world's leader in bio fuels, a policy model for other countries; and its sugarcane ethanol "the most successful non conventional alternative fuel to date. However, some authors consider that the successful Brazilian ethanol model is sustainable only in Brazil due to its advanced agricultural-industrial technology and its enormous amount of arable land available; while according to other authors it is a solution only for some countries in the tropical zone of the Americas and the continent of Africa.

  cars

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Refueling Gas Station at San Paulo

 

Brazil’s 36-year-old ethanol fuel program is based on the most efficient agricultural technology for sugarcane cultivation in the world, uses modern equipment and cheap cane sugar feedstock, the residual cane-waste is used to process heat and power, which results in a very competitive price and also in a high energy balance (output energy/input energy), which varies from 8.3 for average conditions to 10.2 for best practice production. In 2010, the U.S. EPA designated Brazilian sugarcane ethanol as an advanced bio fuel due to its 61% reduction of combined life cycle greenhouse gas emissions.

 
       
 
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History

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Production

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Production process

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Agricultural technology

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  Milling & Refining
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Overall Energy Use

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  Prices and effect on oil consumption
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Comparison with the United States

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Environmental & Social Impacts

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  Concerns